Devil's Slide tunnel (CA), Downtown tunnel (Austin, TX), Rosslyn shaft expansion (DC Metro), Apex tunnel (NV), Silicon Valley Rapid Transit Project (CA), Muni Project (San Francisco, CA), South IH-35 Utility Infrastructure implementation Plan (Austin, TX), Los Angeles Outfall (CA), DWU SW pipeline West (Dallas, TX), Jollyville Tunnel (Austin, TX), Northeast Wastewater 30-Inch Main (Austin, TX), Harris Branch Wastewater Interceptor (Austin, TX), SR 99 Tunnel Project (Seattle, WA), Waller Creek Tunnel (Austin, TX), Panama City Subway Project (Panama), Boggy Creek Water Line Replacement (Austin, TX), SAWS Western Expansion B (San Antonio, TX), White Point Landslide (CA), Delta Habitat Conservation & Conveyance Program (CA), Eglinton Scarborough Crosstown (Toronto, Canada), Dry Comal Creek Flood Retarding Structure (Austin, TX), Mansfield Dam Rehabilitation (Austin, TX), EWS-Coloso Mine (Antofagasta, Chile), Minera Escondida (Chile), Westside Subway Extension (Los Angeles, CA), NorthEast Interceptor Sewer (NEIS) (Los Angeles, CA), Regional Connector (Los Angeles, CA), 64-km long 8.1-m dia. two-tube Brenner Base Tunnel (Italy-Austria), Drumanard Tunnel (IN-KY), Guadalajara subway (Mexico), MSD Deer Creek Tunnel (MO), JWPCP Effluent Outfall Tunnel Project (Los Angeles, CA), Central Bayside Tunnel (San Francisco, CA), New sewer along Isarco river between Cardano and Bolzano (BZ, Italy), Anderson Dam Seismic Retrofit Project (CA), Chukaru Peki mine exploration (Serbia), Hass Underground Wine Cellar (BZ, Italy), Loango Field (Offshore Congo), 2015 Elko Area Expansion Project (NV), Jadar Mine Exploration (Serbia), Saint-Nazaire offshore Wind Farm (France), Courseulles-sur-mer offshore Wind Farm (France), Tunnels for the Third Giovi Crossing (Terzo Valico dei Giovi) high-capacity railway line (Italy), Lealholm Fault study (UK), Gwynt Y Mor offshore Wind Farm (UK), Purple Line Metro Westside Extension (Los Angeles, CA), Observation tower (Dubai, UAE), Nuclear Power Plant Moorside Site Characterization (UK), Newell Creek Dam (Santa Cruz, CA), Scarborough Subway Extension (Toronto, Canada), Acajutla Liquid natural Gas Facility (El Salvador), RDP Tributaries CSO Tunnel (St. Luis, MS), California High-Speed Rail Palmdale to Burbank (CA), Lower Meramec CSO Tunnel (St. Luis, MS), Hornsby Bend Irrigation System Improvements (Austin, TX), SAR WWTP Sludge Transfer Line (Austin, TX), McLoughlin Point WWTP (Victoria, British Columbia), EBMUD Mokelumne Tunnel (Bixler, California), Central Bayside System Improvement Project – CBSIP- (San Francisco, CA), 15-116 Mastfundamente Vinschgerbahan (BZ, Italy), Burj 2020 700-metres (2,300 ft) megatall skyscraper (Dubai, UAE), BMT Timok copper and gold Mining Project (Rakita Exploration d.o.o., Serbia), A31 Valdastico Nord Highway Tunnel (VI, Italy), S. Antonio Hydropower Power Plant Cavern Enlargement (BZ, Italy), 1,800-MW Grand Eweng Hep Dam Phase 2 (Cameroon), DS233 Sewage Terminal Pumping Station (Jebel Ali, UAE), 7-km long 9.5-m dia. Scolmatore Bisagno Tunnel (GE, Italy) .
1. Inspection of the water tunnel Pian Palù-Cogolo: 1.65-1.9 m diameter, 850 m length, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations. 3D model of the tunnel lining intrados textured with high resolution photographs and its use for: lining crack identification and change detection (elongation, formation, and enlargement), concrete spalling identification and change detection (formation, enlargement, and deepening), lining strain-stress pattern based on 3D crack survey, and lining displacement. 3D model georeferenced to 1 mm accuracy.
2. Monitoring of the by-pass tunnel in the Helms Pumped Project (CA). Establish and repeat control, and 3D model of the excavation intrados textured with high resolution photographs; overall accuracy (control + 3D model) = 1 mm. Change detection: intrados displacements, lining moisture conditions, and crack elongation, formation, and enlargement. Monitoring is repeated every 3-6 months.
3. Tassullo underground chambers for limestone quarrying and underground storage of Non-Valley apples (Mollaro, TN, Italy). 3D models of the underground excavations textured with high resolution photographs and their use for: detailed fracture mapping and analysis, rock mass classifications, continuous 3D rock mass model along the entire excavation length, 3D geometry and profile check.
4. Cowee rail tunnel (NC). 3D models of the voids created by rock falls at the two ends of the concrete lining.
5. Malus exploratory tunnel for the Brenner Base Tunnel through the Periadriatic Fault (Austria-Italy). Demonstration of: 3D model of the entire excavation heading (face, walls and crown) textured with high resolution photographs and its use for: detailed fracture mapping, continuous 3D rock mass model along the entire tunnel length, point wise shotcrete thickness calculation, profile check, and final lining concrete volume calculations.
6. Inspection of the Liberty roadway tunnel (Pittsburg, PA). Demonstration of: 3D model of the tunnel lining intrados textured with high resolution photographs and its use for: lining crack identification and change detection (elongation, formation, and enlargement), concrete spalling identification and change detection (formation, enlargement, and deepening), lining strain-stress pattern based on 3D crack survey, and lining displacement.
7. Inspection of the Eisenhower-Johnson highway tunnel along I-70 (CO). Demonstration of: 3D models of the air-duct lining intrados and of the roadway tiled revetment, both textured with high resolution photographs and their use for: lining and tile panel displacement identification, identification of the displacements of the air-duct dividing wall (hung from ceiling), lining and tile panel crack identification and change detection (elongation, formation, and enlargement), concrete spalling identification and change detection (formation, enlargement, and deepening), and lining strain-stress patterns based on 3D crack survey.
8. Inspection of the Chesapeake Bay immersed highway tunnel (VA). Demonstration of: 3D models of the air-duct lining intrados and of the roadway tiled revetment, both textured with high resolution photographs and their use for: lining and tile panel displacement identification, lining and tile panel crack identification and change detection (elongation, formation, and enlargement), concrete spalling identification and change detection (formation, enlargement, and deepening), lining strain-stress patterns based on 3D crack survey, and entire tunnel survey displacements induced by loss of ballast or ballast overloading.
1. Rock mass characterization of Mount Brione in Arco, TN, Italy. The rock face was about 270 m high and 2,600 m wide. Topographic control, 3D model texture with high resolution photos, fracture mapping, determination of the dimensions of the rock blocks on the slope and identification of unstable blocks. This information was then used in a rockfall analysis and in the design of the rockfall mitigation system. Global accuracy of 3 cm obtained from ground stations located 1-1.3 km from the rock faces.
2. Rock mass characterization of Rocchetta and Cima SAT rock faces in Riva del Garda, TN, Italy. Each rock face was about 500 m high and 270 m wide. Topographic control, 3D model texture with high resolution photos, fracture mapping, determination of the dimensions of the rock blocks on the slope and identification of unstable blocks. This information was then used in a rockfall analysis for the areas to be developed some 800 m below the toe of the rock faces. Global accuracy of 3 cm obtained from ground stations located 1.8-2.6 km from the rock faces.
3. Monitoring of the Hanging-Lake rock slope along I-70 (CO). Developed entire monitoring scheme and photo acquisition technique for the 500 m high, 1,800 m wide vertical to sub-vertical rock slope in order to achieve 2.5 cm (1 inch) accuracy over the entire slope. The slope is located in a very narrow canyon and it has a very irregular shape (concavities and convexities), which prevent imaging from the ground. 3D model of the slope textured with high resolution photographs and its use to determine slope displacements. Monitoring is repeated every 3-6 months.
4. Monitoring of the De Beque rock slide along I-70 (CO). Established control and developed entire monitoring scheme for the 500 m high, 600 m wide rock slope in order to achieve 1 cm (0.4 inch) accuracy over the entire slope. 3D model of the slope textured with high resolution photographs and its use to determine slope displacements.
1. Part of the Review Panel for the Director’s CD-3A Review of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), Conventional Facilities, Underground Excavations. Review of the Preliminary Design for the Detector’s facilities 1,500 m (4850 ft) below surface at Sanford Underground Research Facility (formerly Homestake Gold Mine) in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Facilities include 4 caverns (27.4-m or 90-ft high, 20-m of 65-ft wide, 154-m 505-ft long), central utility cavern (11.5-m or 38ft high, 19.5-m or 64 ft wide and 190-m or 624-ft long), 1,200 m (3,871 ft) of new and enlarged access drifts and 953 m (3,125 ft) of mucking ramps.
2. Part of the Expert Review Panel for the 8-km long Scarborough Subway Extension (SSE) Project by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), Toronto, Canada. Glacial deposits: overconsolidated silts, sands and clays below the water table. Evaluation of the current design solutions (including 14.1-m, 46-ft single bore with stacked tracks), proposal of alternative solution (10-m single bore with two parallel tracks), risk register.
3. Black and Veatch Review Panel for the 10.8 km-long Jollyville Water Tunnel, Austin, TX. Soft limestone of the Glen Rose formation.
4. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design for a 300-m long drainage tunnel for slope stabilization. Claystone and shale at different degrees of weathering. Lucera, Foggia, Italy.+
5. Analysis and design of the rehabilitation of the two-lane Comelico tunnel along a 350-m long tectonic contact between limestone and flysch. Belluno, Italy.+
6. Proposal for a new highway in northern Africa: 3 tunnels (3,350+8,200+1,670 = 13,220 m) and four bridges (300+300+350+380 = 1,330 m). Geological and geotechnical proposal for tunnels and bridge foundations, and proposal of construction methods for tunnels.+
7. Analysis and shop drawing design for the two-lane Listolade tunnel, Belluno, Italy. Cross-section: 110 m2; length: 100 m in colluvial detritus + 1,375 m in limestone and 135 m in siltstone.+
8. Review of Parsons Water & Infrastructure project for evaluating the repair and replacement alternatives for the T-19 tunnel and the Forebay in granite, part of the Southern California Edison Kern River Number 1 hydroelectric project. Bakersfield, California, USA.
9. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design of five new twin tunnels (each 110 m2 in cross-section) in fractured limestone and mudstone for the highway Salerno-Reggio Calabria, Italy, contract DG-32. Tunnels: Ospedaletto (length 600 m), Cillarese (length 1000 m), Cerreta (length 750 m), Colloreto (length 150 m), Campotenese 2 (400 m). Special features: intersections and interference between the old and the new tunnels, presence of a high water head in mudstone (Cerreta tunnel), and presence of a valuable monastery over Colloreto tunnel+
10. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design of two new twin tunnels (each 110 m2 in cross-section) in fractured flysh and limestone for the highway Salerno-Reggio Calabria, Italy, contract DG-8. Tunnels: Sardina II (length 300 m), Costa del Monte (length 600 m). Special features: intersections and interference between the old and the new tunnels, soft shale and shallow cover under inhabited area for Sardina tunnel. Preparation of the geotechnical interpretation and baseline reports for the two tunnels.+
11. State Road 77 from Muccia to Colfiorito, Ancona, Italy. Preliminary design and value engineering of 10 km of tunnels for the four alignment alternatives. Geotechnical and structural analysis and final design of the thirteen tunnels for the selected alignment: Brogliano (868 m), Casali (460 m), Faeto (790 m), Castelletto, (970 m), Unnamed (175 m), Serravalle (395 m), Bavareto (750 m), Gelagna (975 m), Massa (550 m), Costafiore (1960 m), Muccia II (590 m), Muccia I (340 m), La Rocchetta (980 m), total 9,803 m. Rock masses: limestone, shale, mudstone, marl.+
12. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design for a large underground tuff quarry of Etruscan age (50-200 m in span, 20-30 m in height, 20 m deep) to be transformed into a conference center. Tarquinia, Viterbo, Italy.+
13. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design of the diversion tunnels for two earth dams in northern Africa. Internal diameter: 5.5 m; length: 300 m; rock mass: chalk-limestone.+
14. Post-Tender design of the Seattle Light Rail Link subway project, WA, USA. Geotechnical and structural analysis and design of the EPB-excavated running tunnel (10 m in internal diameter, 7.5 km in length), 3 mined stations (17 m wide, 14 m high, 120 m long) and shafts (internal diameter from 16 to 36 m) in soft ground under the water table. Special features: deepest subway in the USA (80 m), passage of Portage Bay.=
15. La Guardia Airport “N” line extension tunnel feasibility study (New York, NY, USA); 3 km of tunnels and 3 stations in soft ground (glacial sand, varved silt and clay, glacial till, organic silts and clays) under the water table. Development of new, deep profile to avoid organic soil or running sands, and development of construction methods for three deep mined stations, recommendations for the most appropriate tunnel boring machine. Development and spreadsheet implementation of methodologies for ranking different design alternatives.=
16. Water intrusion study for the Medical Center crossover cavern (15 m wide, 12 m high, 24 m overburden) on the Subway Red Line, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Bethesda, VA, USA). Assessment of the existing condition and development of a monitoring program for the rock reinforcement and cavern lining. Recommendations for the mitigation of the water intrusion problem.=
17. Second Avenue Subway Project, New York, NY, USA. Member of the proposal team. Geotechnical and structural study of several design alternatives; study of different tunneling methods and construction methods for the stations. Soft ground, hard rock, and mixed-face conditions. Preparation of man-hour estimates and construction cost estimates.=
18. RTD light-rail extension, Denver, CO, USA. Independent check and final design of: outfall tunnel lining and EPBM construction method (diameter 4.5 m, length 400 m through sandstone, sand/gravel, and clay under the water table), transition structure, junction structure, drop shaft, and bridge underpinnings.=
1. Design and analysis of a combined sheet-pile wall and micropile retaining system for the construction of new retaining walls in proximity of ancient and delicate masonry buildings in Giudecca Canal, Venice, Italy. Design and analysis of the final retaining wall on micropiles.+
2. Analysis and design of 12-m deep tied-back slurry walls and micropile tremie concrete walls for a new building adjacent to 200-year-old stone-masonry buildings in Cortina D'Ampezzo (Belluno, Italy).+
3. Geotechnical and structural design of the foundations for a cable-stayed bridge on the Adda river, Italy (span 400 m).+
4. Geotechnical and structural, reliability-based design of micropile foundations for a factory in Costa Rica in very loose chaotic soil in seismic zone.+
5. Analysis and design of an embankment for a rock trap ditch subjected to impacting rock blocks, in Trento, Italy.+
6. Analysis of shallow foundations for a series of high electric towers in Italy.+
7. Geomechanical analysis and design of a landfill for municipal waste in seismic zone (Val Organa); construction phases, short term and long term behavior. Cavaso del Tomba, Treviso, Italy.+
8. Design and analysis of abutment pile foundations for the new Woodrow-Wilson Bridge between Maryland and Virginia, USA.=
1. Analysis and design of a 6- to 7-m high rock cut in limestone and of its stabilization. The cut was adjacent to an ancient 3-story high masonry house, with distance to the house foundation varying from 20 cm to 3 m. Nago, Trento, Italy.+
2. Safety assessment of the current condition, and analysis and design of the stabilization system for a sub-vertical 50-m high rock slope in Condino, Trento, Italy.+
3. Slope stability analysis of river embankments for the Po river. Rovigo, Italy.+
4. Slope stability analysis for the slope under Bridge 4284 on the Appalachian Corridor H, Section 16, West Virginia, USA. Soft clay overlaying shale deposit. Recommendations for the mitigation of the slope instability threatening the pier foundations.=
1. Structural design and analysis of special reinforced concrete structures (tanks, process basins, etc.) for the purification plant in Asti, Italy.+
2. Analysis of the current state, failure causes and technical design documentation relative to the rehabilitation and reconstruction of two earth dams in northern Africa; crest length 500 m, crest height 30 m. Analysis and design of diversion tunnels, grouting and toe galleries, intake towers, and outlet works in seismic zone.+
3. Analysis of a dock for the Port of Ancona, Italy, composed of tied-back sheet-pile walls.+
4. In situ stress measurement program at the Seminoe dam (Wyoming, USA), owned by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The dam was suffering from alcali-aggregate reactions. Recommendations for the stress analyses to be conducted. Study carried out together with Prof. Bernard Amadei, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.
1. Final structural design and shop drawings of a precast, prestressed concrete simply-supported bridge 27-m in span over the Roncajette river, Padova, Italy. Girders, deck, abutments and foundations.+
2. Final structural design and CAD shop drawings of a steel-concrete composite viaduct 20-m in width, for the highway Milan-Serravalle (Milan, Italy); tree span (43-74-43 m) continuous bridge: superstructure, abutments, piers and foundations.•
3. Analysis of piers and micropile foundations of a prestressed reinforced concrete bridge in seismic zone, close to Pescopagano, Italy.+
Structural design for Ex-Giacetti building, 3 storeys + underground basement. Vicenza, Italy.+
1. Structural restoration analysis and design of a XV century masonry building called “Mulini Vecchi” in Bassano del Grappa (Vicenza, Italy).+
2. Assessment of the current conditions and redesign of the restoration measures for an XVIII century 50-m high masonry bell tower in Bessica di Loria (Vicenza, Italy).+
1. Expert witness for ANAS (Italian National Road and Transportation Agency) relative to a spring intersected by Agnese tunnel in Trento, Italy. Hydrological and hydrogeological study.+
2. Expert witness for Central Texas Regional Mobility Authority (CTRMA) in a dispute with Contractor CH2M-Hill pertaining to the difficulties encountered by the contractor in microtunneling through Edwards Limestone in Austin, TX, USA. The microtunneling work was used to install drains for the MoPac (Loop 1) Improvement Project: express lanes between Cesar Chavez and Parmer Lane to manage congestion and improve reliability. The expert witness was instrumental in winning the $54 million claim in front of the Dispute Board.
Note: the symbol "+" indicates a project carried out by Dr. Fulvio Tonon as a consultant on behalf of SIGES (Treviso, Italy); the symbol "=" indicates a project carried out by Dr. Fulvio Tonon as a Senior Tunnel Engineer with Parsons Transportation Group (Washington, DC, USA).
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